抗血栓トライアルデータベース
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I. 急性冠症候群

1. 急性心筋梗塞,心筋梗塞既往

日本循環器学会 2011
心筋梗塞二次予防に関するガイドライン(2011年改訂版)
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

2. 急性冠症候群(ACS)

日本蘇生協議会 2010
ガイドライン2010(ドラフト版):急性冠症候群(ACS)
http://www.qqzaidan.jp/jrc2010_kakutei.html

ESC 2015
2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehv320 First published online: 29 August 2015
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/ehj/early/2015/08/28/eurheartj.ehv320.full.pdf

ESC/EACTS/EAPCI 2014
2014 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization: The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) Developed with the special contribution of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI). Eur Heart J 2014; 35: 2541-619.
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/09/10/eurheartj.ehu278.full-text.pdf

ESC 2011
Guidelines: ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011; 32: 2999-3054.
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/08/26/eurheartj.ehr236.full-text.pdf

ESC 2010
Guidelines on myocardial revascularization. The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 2501-55.
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/20/2501.long

3. ST上昇型心筋梗塞

ACCF/AHA 2016
2016 ACC/AHA Guideline Focused Update on Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines: An Update of the 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI Guideline for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery, 2012 ACC/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease, 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes, and 2014 ACC/AHA Guideline on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Management of Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery. Circulation 2016; 134:e123-e155,
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/134/10/e123
correction: Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/134/10/e192

ACCF/AHA 2013
2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2013; 127: e362-425.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/127/4/e362.long

ESC 2012
Guidelines: ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: The Task Force on the management of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) . Eur Heart J 2012; 33: 2569-619.
Available at http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/20/2569

4. 不安定狭心症および非ST上昇型心筋梗塞(UA/NSTEMI)

ACC/AHA 2014
2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2014; 130: 2354-94.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/25/2354.long

ACC/AHA 2011限定アップデート包括ガイドライン
2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2011; 123: e426-579.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/123/18/e426.long

ACC/AHA 2011限定アップデート(prasugrelが追加されるなど)
2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update of the Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (Updating the 2007 Guideline): A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2012; 126: 875-910.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/126/7/875.long

II. 冠動脈疾患

1. 冠動脈疾患

日本循環器学会 2009
循環器疾患における抗凝固・抗血小板療法に関するガイドライン(2009年改訂版)
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

AHA/ACC 2016
2016 ACC/AHA Guideline Focused Update on Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines: An Update of the 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI Guideline for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery, 2012 ACC/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease, 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes, and 2014 ACC/AHA Guideline on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Management of Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery Circulation March 29 2016.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2016/03/28/CIR.0000000000000404.full.pdf+html

AHA/ACC/HHS 2014
AHA/ACC/HHS Strategies to Enhance Application of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease and Comorbid Conditions: From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and US Department of Health and Human Services. Circulation 2014; 130: 1662-7.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/18/1662.long

ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS 2014
2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS Focused Update of the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease. Circulation 2014; 130: 1749-67.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/19/1749.long

AHA/ACC/HHS 2014
AHA/ACC/HHS Strategies to Enhance Application of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease and Comorbid Conditions: From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and US Department of Health and Human Services. Circulation 2014; 130: 1662-7..
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/18/1662.long

AHA/ACC 2011
AHA/ACCF Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction Therapy for Patients With Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2011 Update: A Guideline From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation 2011; 124: 2458-73.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/22/2458.long

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force(USPSTF) 2009
Aspirin for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
消化管出血リスクを上回る心筋梗塞抑制ベネフィットが期待できる45-79歳の男性に対してのaspirin使用を推奨する(Grade:A)。
消化管出血リスクを上回る脳梗塞抑制ベネフィットが期待できる55-79歳の女性に対してのaspirin使用を推奨する(Grade:A)。
80歳以上に対するaspirin投与についての有益性/有害性のバランスは不明である(Grade:I statement)。
45歳未満の男性に対する心筋梗塞予防,55歳未満の女性に対する脳卒中予防のためのaspirin投与は推奨されない(Grade:D)。
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force(USPSTF)
Available at Ann Intern Med 2009;150:396-404

ESC 2013
2013 ESC guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease: The Task Force on the management of stable coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2013; 34: 2949-3003.
Available at http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/34/38/2949.long

2. 安定狭心症

日本循環器学会 2009
循環器疾患における抗凝固・抗血小板療法に関するガイドライン(2009年改訂版)
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

3. 冠動脈大動脈バイパスグラフト術(CABG)施行

AHA 2015 Scientific Statement
Secondary Prevention After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation2015.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2015/02/09/CIR.0000000000000182.full.pdf+html

ACC/AHA 2011
2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2011; 124: e652-735.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/23/e652.long

ESC 2014 Expert position paper
Expert position paper on the management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Eur Heart J 2014; 35: 1510-14.
Available at http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/23/1510.long

4. 冠動脈インターベンション(PCI)施行

ACC/AHA/SCAI 2011
2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI Guideline for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Circulation 2011; 124: e574-651.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/23/e574.long

III. 脳卒中急性期

1. 脳卒中急性期

日本脳卒中学会 2009
脳卒中治療ガイドライン2009. 篠原幸人他編, 2009文献一覧

AHA/ASA 2015(血管内治療に関する部分的アップデート)
Powers WJ, et al. 2015 AHA/ASA Focused Update of the 2013 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Regarding Endovascular Treatment. Stroke 2015, June 29.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2015/06/26/STR.0000000000000074.full.pdf+html
2013年以降に発表された8件*のRCTにもとづいた部分的アップデート。新しい推奨として,適応基準**にすべて合致する患者はstent retrieverによる血管内治療をうけるべきとした。
*:SYNTHESIS Expansion,IMS III,MR RESCUE,MR CLEAN,ESCAPE,SWIFT PRIME,EXTEND-IA,REVASCAT
*:病前mRS 0~1,発症から4.5時間以内にrt-PA静注,内頸動脈またはM1近位部の閉塞,年齢≧18歳以上,NIHSS≧6,ASPECTS≧6,発症から6時間以内に治療開始可能

AHA/ASA 2013
Jauch EC, et al. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2013; 44: 870-947.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/44/3/870.long
【血栓溶解療法の推奨(新規経口抗凝固薬に関して)】
直接トロンビン阻害薬または直接Xa因子阻害薬服用中の患者に対するrtPA静注は,臨床検査[aPTT,PT-INR,血小板数,エカリン凝固時間(ECT),トロンビン時間(TT),Xa活性アッセイなど]が正常でない限り,または患者がこれらの薬剤を服用していない期間が>2日の場合を除き,推奨されない。rtPA動脈内投与についても同様(クラスIII,エビデンスレベルC)。

AHA/ASA 2011(脳静脈血栓症)
Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Stroke 2011; 42: 1158-92.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/42/4/1158.long

ACCP 2012
Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141: 7S-47S.
Available at http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1159399

European Stroke Organisation (ESO) 2008
Guidelines for Management of Ischaemic Stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 25: 457-507.
Available at http://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/131083
【aspirin 投与に関して 】
・脳梗塞発症後48時間以内にaspirin 160-325mg/日を投与するべきである。(レベルI)
・脳梗塞急性期においてaspirin以外の抗血小板薬は併用・単独ともに推奨されない。
・血栓溶解療法を予定する場合は,aspirin投与を控えるべきである。
・血栓溶解療法後24時間のaspirin投与は許可されない。

Royal College of Physicians (RCP) 2012
National clinical guideline for stroke Foutrh edition.
Available at http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/sites/default/files/national-clinical-guidelines-for-stroke-fourth-edition.pdf

2. 脳静脈血栓症

AHA/ASA 2011
Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2011; 42: 1158-92.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/42/4/1158.long

IV. 脳卒中/TIA既往

日本循環器学会 2009
循環器疾患における抗凝固・抗血小板療法に関するガイドライン(2009年改訂版)
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

日本脳卒中学会 2009
脳卒中治療ガイドライン2009. 篠原幸人他編, 2009文献一覧

Canada Heart and Stroke Foundation 2014
Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: secondary prevention of stroke guidelines, update 2014. Int J Stroke 2015; 10: 282-91.
Available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ijs.12439/abstract?campaign=woletoc

AHA/ASA 2014
Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack. A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2014; 45: 2160-236.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/45/7/2160.long

AHA/ASA 2011(脳静脈血栓症)
Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2011; 42: 1158-92.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/42/4/1158.long

Royal College of Physicians (RCP) 2012
National clinical guideline for stroke Foutrh edition.
Available at http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/sites/default/files/national-clinical-guidelines-for-stroke-fourth-edition.pdf

V. 血栓症高リスク(心内塞栓源)

1. 心臓弁膜症

AHA/ACC 2014
心臓弁膜症患者管理ガイドライン
2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: Executive Summary Circulation 2014; 129: e521-643.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/23/e521.long

2. 心房細動

AHA 2017
急性期および周術期におけるNOACの管理に関するステートメント
2017 Management of Patients on Non–Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in the Acute Care and Periprocedural Setting: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;CIR.0000000000000477
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2017/02/06/CIR.0000000000000477

ACC 2017
2017 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway for Periprocedural Management of Anticoagulation in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Clinical Expert Consensus Document Task Force. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017.
Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109716370851

日本循環器学会 2013
循環器の診断と治療に関するガイドライン:心房細動治療(薬物)ガイドライン(2013年改訂版).
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/index.htm
CHADS2スコア≧2:適応があれば新規経口抗凝固薬をまず考慮。
CHADS2スコア≧2:ダビガトラン,リバーロキサバン,アピキサバン,エドキサバン。
CHADS2スコア1点:ダビガトラン,アピキサバン。
ワルファリン療法時のPT-INRを2.0~3.0(70歳以上,非弁膜症性心房細動患者は1.6~2.6)。
腎機能中等度低下例への新規経口抗凝固薬の用量調節。
ワルファリン療法時の定期的なPT-INRモニタリング。

心房細動患者における抗血栓療法に関する緊急ステートメント(2011年8月12日) http://www.j-circ.or.jp/
(心房細動における抗血栓療法)
僧帽弁狭窄症/機械弁:warfarin(推奨)
非弁膜症性心房細動
CHADS2スコア≧2:warfarin,dabigatran(推奨)
CHADS2スコア1:warfarin(考慮可),dabigatran(推奨)
その他のリスクあり:warfarin,dabigatran(考慮可)

Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation -Evaluation and positioning of new oral anticoagulant agents-
CHADS2スコア1点以上の非弁膜症性心房細動患者に対してdabigatranを推奨(クラスI,エビデンスレベルB)
・中等度腎機能低下,P-糖蛋白阻害薬併用,70歳以上,消化管出血既往では110mgを考慮
・CHADS2スコア0点:心筋症,65〜74歳,女性,冠動脈疾患,甲状腺中毒のうち1つを有する場合はdabigatranを考慮
Ogawa S, et al. Circ J 2011;75:1539-47.
Available at http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/circj/75/7/75_1539/_article
 

ACCP 2012
Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141: 7S-47S.
Available at http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1159399

AHA/ACC/HRS 2014
2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society Circulation 2014; 130: e199-267.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/23/e199.long

AHA/ACC/HRS 2011
2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (updating the 2006 guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2011; 123: 104-23.
・2011年限定アップデートがACC/AHA/ESCガイドラインに組み入れられました。
・心房細動患者で脳卒中・全身性塞栓症のリスクを有する(人工弁,重症の弁膜症,重度の腎不全,進行した肝臓病の患者を除く)例における,脳卒中,全身性塞栓症予防のため,ワルファリン代替薬としてダビガトランは有用(エビデンスレベル:B)
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/123/1/104.long

AHA/ASA 2012 Science Advisory
[新しい推奨]
非弁膜症性心房細動患者における脳卒中一次/二次予防として,ワルファリン(クラスI,エビデンスレベルA),ダビガトラン(クラスI,エビデンスレベルB),apixaban(クラスI,エビデンスレベルB),リバーロキサバン(クラスIIa,エビデンスレベルB)を適応とする。抗血栓薬の選択は,リスク因子,コスト,忍容性,患者の好み,薬剤相互作用の可能性,その他の臨床的特徴(ワルファリンを投与されている患者ではTTRを含む)にもとづいてなされるべきである。
Furie KL, et al. Oral Antithrombotic Agents for the Prevention of Stroke in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Science Advisory for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2012; 43: 3442-53.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/43/12/3442.long

ESC/EHRA/EAPCI/ACCA/HRS/APHRS 2014
Management of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary or valve interventions: a joint consensus document of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and European Association of Acute Cardiac Care (ACCA) endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS). Eur Heart J 2014; 35: 3155-79.
Available at http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/45/3155.long

ESC 2012 focused update
Guidelines: 2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: An update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association. Eur Heart J 2012; 33: 2719-47.
Available at http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/21/2719.long
[関連記事]ESC 2012:心房細動管理ガイドラインのアップデートが発表される

Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) 2014
2014 focused update of the canadian cardiovascular society guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Can J Cardiol 2014; 30: 1114-30.
Available at http://www.onlinecjc.ca/article/S0828-282X(14)01249-5/pdf

Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) 2012
Focused 2012 update of the canadian cardiovascular society atrial fibrillation guidelines: recommendations for stroke prevention and rate/rhythm control. Can J Cardiol 2012; 28: 125-36.
Available at http://www.onlinecjc.ca/article/S0828-282X(12)00046-3/fulltext

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence(NICE) 2014
Atrial fibrillation: the management of atrial fibrillation. Issued: June 2014
Available at http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG180/NICEGuidance/pdf/English

VI.末梢動脈疾患

日本循環器学会 2009
末梢閉塞性動脈疾患の治療ガイドライン
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

日本循環器学会 2009
循環器疾患における抗凝固・抗血小板療法に関するガイドライン(2009年改訂版)
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

ACC/AHA 2016
2016 AHA/ACC Guideline on the Management of Patients With Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease. Circulation. 2016;CIR.0000000000000471
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2016/11/11/CIR.0000000000000471

ACCP 2012
Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141: 7S-47S.
Available at http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1159399

ACC/AHA 2011 Focused Update:
2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update of the Guideline for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (Updating the 2005 Guideline): A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Circulation 2011; 124: 2020-45.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/18/2020.long

VI.静脈血栓塞栓症

日本循環器学会 2009
肺血栓塞栓症および深部静脈血栓症の診断、治療、予防に関するガイドライン(2009年改訂版)
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

ACCP 2012
Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141: 7S-47S.
Available at http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1159399

ACP 2011
Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hospitalized Medical Patients and Those With Stroke: A Background Review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline . Ann Intern Med 2011; 155: 625-32.
Available at http://www.annals.org/content/155/9/602.abstract

AHA 2011
Management of Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism, Iliofemoral Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension. Circulation 2011; 123: 1788-830.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/123/16/1788.long

ESC/ERS 2014
2014 ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Endorsed by the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J 2014; 35: 3033-69, 3069a-3069k.
Available at http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/43/3033.long

VIII. 一次予防

1. 脳卒中一次予防

AHA/ASA 2014
Guidelines for the Primary Prevention of Stroke: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2014; 45: 3754-832.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/45/12/3754.long

AHA/ASA 2010
Guidelines for the Primary Prevention of Stroke. A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/America Stroke Association . Stroke 2011; 42: 517-84.
心房細動患者に対する抗血栓療法
NVAF患者(脳卒中高リスク例は全例,中等度リスク例は大多数)に対し用量調整warfarin(標的INR 2.0〜3.0)を推奨
低リスクおよび中等度リスク例の一部にはaspirinを推奨
抗凝固療法不適の高リスク例にはclopidogrel+aspirin併用療法を推奨 
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/42/2/517.long

2. 高血圧症一次予防

日本循環器学会 2012
循環器病の診断と治療に関するガイドライン:虚血性心疾患の一次予防ガイドライン(2012年改訂版).
Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

3. 心血管疾患一次予防

日本循環器学会 2012
虚血性心疾患の一次予防ガイドライン(2012年改訂版)
成人における心血管疾患一次予防Available at http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/

4. 糖尿病患者心血管疾患一次予防

ADA/AHA/ACCF 2010
アスピリンによる糖尿病患者心血管疾患一次予防
Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in People With Diabetes. A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association, a Scientific Statement of the American Heart Association, and an Expert Consensus Document of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation 2010; 121:2694-701.
Available http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/121/24/2694.long

VII. その他

1. 糖尿病

AHA/ADA 2007
Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in people with diabetes mellitus: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association. Circulation 2007; 115: 114-26.
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/115/1/114.long

2. 頸動脈内膜切除術施行

Royal College of Physicians (RCP) 2012
National clinical guideline for stroke Foutrh edition.
Available at http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/sites/default/files/national-clinical-guidelines-for-stroke-fourth-edition.pdf

3. 内視鏡手技を受ける患者に対する抗凝固療法と抗血小板療法

British Cardiovascular Intervention Society 2008
Guidelines for the management of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing endoscopic procedures. Gut 2008; 57: 1322-9.
pubmed

4. 女性

AHA/ASA 2014
女性における脳卒中の予防
Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Women: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2014; 45: 1545-88.
Available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/45/5/1545.long

AHA 2011
女性における循環器疾患の予防
Effectiveness-Based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women: 2011 Update. Circulation 2011; 123: 1243-62 .
Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/123/11/1243.long

5. 乳児/小児

AHA 2008
乳児/小児における脳卒中の管理
Management of Stroke in Infants and Children. Stroke 2008; 39: 2644-91.
Available http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/39/9/2644.long

6. 抗血栓薬使用における消化管リスク抑制

ACC/ACG/AHA 2010
抗血小板薬およびNSAIDs使用における消化管リスク抑制
ACCF/ACG/AHA 2010 Expert Consensus Document on the Concomitant Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Thienopyridines: A Focused Update of the ACCF/ACG/AHA 2008 Expert Consensus Document on Reducing the Gastrointestinal Risks of Antiplatelet Therapy and NSAID Use. Circulation 2010; 122: 2619-33.
Available http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/122/24/2619.long

7. 救急医療

AHA/ARC 2010
2010 American Heart Association and American Red Cross International Consensus on First Aid Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2010; 122; S582-S605.
Available http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/122/16_suppl_2/S582.long

8. 頭蓋外頸/椎骨動脈疾患

ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS 2011
2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS Guideline on the Management of Patients With Extracranial Carotid and Vertebral Artery Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery . Stroke 2011; 124: 489-532.
Available http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/4/489.long
血行再建術を施行しないアテローム性頭蓋外頸動脈硬化症患者に対する抗血栓療法
Class I
1. 頭蓋外頸かつ/または椎骨動脈を含む閉塞性/非閉塞性アテローム動脈硬化症患者における心筋梗塞など虚血性冠動脈イベント予防にはアスピリン75〜325mg/日を推奨。
2. 虚血性脳卒中または一過性脳虚血発作を有する頭蓋外頸/椎骨動脈を含む閉塞性/非閉塞性アテローム動脈硬化症患者には,アスピリン+クロピドグレル併用よりもアスピリン単独(75〜325mg/日),クロピドグレル単独(75mg/日),アスピリン+徐放性ジピリダモール併用(25および200mg,1日2回)を推奨。
3. 虚血症状を有する頭蓋外頸/椎骨動脈疾患患者には経口抗凝固療法より抗血小板療法を推奨。

2011年5月25日の訂正(抗血栓療法関連)
11.2.1頸部動脈解離患者に対する推奨
脳梗塞/TIAをともなう頭蓋外頸/椎骨動脈解離患者に対しては,3〜6カ月の抗凝固療法(ヘパリン,低分子量ヘパリン,warfarin)または抗血小板療法(aspirin,clopidogrel,徐放性+aspirin合剤)による抗血栓療法が妥当である。(エビデンスレベルB)

9. 無症候性脳血管疾患

ASA/AHA 2016
Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2016.
Available http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2016/12/15/STR.0000000000000116